Welcome to the course on Land Administration My name is Peter van Oosterom and I prepared this course with my colleague Marianne de Vries and we used slides from Christiaan Lemmen and Rohan Bennett This is an introduction to the topic of Land Administration We cover four main issues What is Land Administration The importance of standardization in administration, the use of information modelling by UML class diagrams and we’ll have a look at 3D cadastres What are the main drivers for land administration Fiscal, to support taxation Juridical, to protect legal status of ownership and also multipurpose, legal motivations but also land use planning. In many countries land administration is seen as a condition for sustainable development therefore very important The United Nations defines Land administration as the process of recording and disseminating the information about ownership, the value and the use of lands and the associated resources, think of buildings, and other topics Here in this diagram of McLaughlin and Dale we see the 3 aspects: the land value, the land use, and land ownership We also see that different parts of the government are involved Ministry of Justice, Finance, ministry of planning and environment and this goes on so this makes it a complex setting Here you see in a nutshell the cadastral concepts. On one side the spatial information, parcels on a map On the other side ownership information, legal information linked to the parcels via the parcel identifier. The parcel boundaries are basically two types there are countries that use general boundaries referring to physical features, real world objects, rivers, roads the other type is called fixed boundaries these are not directly related to real features but to precisely surveyed boundaries also called the coordinate cadaster So cadastre consists of 2 types of information the spatial information , the maps, the boundaries, the parcel identifiers The administrative information, legal information, what rights or restrictions apply to the parcels which persons are involved and of course these 2 should be linked The critical part as we saw before is that multiple organisations are often involved. In many countries there is an operational cadastre or land registry and it is estimated that only a quarter of the parcels in the world are formally registered so that leaves a big gap of so therefore we should try to improve the situation and one attempt is via a standardized approach the benefits of standards are the support to meaningful exchange of data remember in land administration multiple organizations can be involved when they exchange data they should have good definitions and this enables interoperability between systems involved so organizations they also help building the spatial data infrastructure Standardization itself is because the standards are based on knowledge experience from a global community and it’s also cost effective because in benefiting components the industry can develop solutions that are re-used the same for open source communities so therefore there is ISO TC211 the geographic information community started to standardize land administration That you could ask is this possible because there are use differences or supposed to be use differences between all these cadastral and land registry systems in the world every country has own legislation, own implementation and set of tools Okay despite this. Question mark FIG decides in 2002 okay let’s work on standardization. The FIG is the international federation of surveyors. Because basically the information is also much the same if land cover the parcels with persons. Using the land ownership rights or other rights And if rights are recorded in this land administration process. So the result was indeed an officialised standard with the name ISO19152 the land administration domain model and it covers both the spatial and the legal part. Its a conceptual model meaning it defines the key concepts but it’s not direct implementation. The scope of LADM is a reference model. It’s called land ministration but is also developed for water spaces. Areas above and below the surface. Three packages are the parties package it’s persons the legal package it’s rights, restrictions, responsibilities. And the spatial package where also spatial sources say the surveys are included and also the presentations such as cadastral maps. It defines a terminology which allows communication between info organizations and systems. And it is helping the… Yeah countries too. Starts and on top of the start they can build the national or regional profile the location schema. The process is rather lengthy first was in FIG it took four years to derive to develop the first model, the domain model. Then there were a number of preliminary talks within ISO. Among the players FIG, ISO, the European Normalization Institute. And the actual standardization started in 2008. After a number of faces in 2012 it became an official standard here we see the LADM project team of ISO TC211 at work in one of the meetings and here’s the results You can go to the ISO website and download after writing this standard Okay you will see a number of examples why standardization was supposed to be very difficult this is from five countries. A list of rights and restrictions with the terms attached so you see the complexity. The reason again the different legal systems here is an overview of the main categories of legal systems in Europe. Now the looks at it from a rather broad perspective. It defines the 3 legal concepts. The right, the restriction and the responsibility and I live way so right is an action or an activity or a set of actions that the system participant may perform on or using an associated resource A restriction is something that you are not allowed to do and the responsibility is the obligation to do something so these are 3 concepts that LADM defines but standardized.